libgit2: Walking History

Oct 02, 2013

Making new commits and dealing with the working directory is only half of what git is for. Most of the data in a git repository is historical; old commits, old versions of files. Let’s take a look at how you can use libgit2 to handle that information.

Commits

It’s pretty easy to just load up a commit and start poking around with the data inside it. It seems pretty logical to do this when you want to walk the commit history of the project, right? Let’s take a look at how that turns out:

```c void visit(git_commit *c) { size_t i, num_parents = git_commit_parentcount(c);

/* Print some stuff about this commit */
char oidstr[10] = {0};
git_oid_tostr(oidstr, 9, git_commit_id(c));
printf("%s\n%s\n\n", oidstr,
       commit_message(c));

for (i=0; i<num_parents; i++) {
  /* Do the same for the parents */
  git_commit *p;
  if (!git_commit_parent(&p, c, i))
    visit(p);
  git_commit_free(p);
}   }

git_commit commit; / elided: dereference HEAD to a commit */ visit(commit); ```

But what if you want something other than a depth-first traversal? Maybe you want to sort the results by commit time? That’s a pretty tricky bit of code to write. What if your repo has a non-trivial amount of history? You’ll run out of stack frames pretty quickly.

There’s an API for that.

Revwalk

The revwalk API works similarly to what we just wrote above, with a few exceptions:

  • It has a configurable sort order for the output.
  • It’s not built on recursion, so even very large repos can be walked efficiently.
  • You get to choose your start and end points.
  • It offers some history simplification.

Let’s walk through this one step at a time. First, you have to create a walker object:

c git_revwalk *walk; if (git_revwalk_new(&walk, repo) < 0) { /* ERROR */ }

Pretty straightforward, not much to explain here. Next, let’s configure the walk:

```c git_revwalk_sorting(walk, GIT_SORT_TOPOLOGICAL | GIT_SORT_TIME) git_revwalk_push_head(walk); git_revwalk_hide_glob(walk, “tags/*”);

git_object *obj; git_revparse_single(&obj, repo, “HEAD~10”); git_revwalk_hide(walk, git_object_id(obj)); git_object_free(obj); ```

We’re doing several things here:

  1. We set the sort order to “topological + time”. This sounds a bit arcane, but it’s just what you’d want for a log viewer: parents after children, sorted by commit time.
  2. We “push” the HEAD commit onto the walk. This tells the walk that the HEAD and its ancestors should be visited when we start iterating. You can even do more than one “push” (i.e. all of the known refs, for behavior like git log --all).
  3. We “hide” from the walk all commits that are included in a tag. The pattern will match all the refs under “refs/tags”, dereference them to commits, and exclude those commits and their ancestors from the walk.
  4. We also hide all commits that precede the 10th ancestor of HEAD.

Obviously, these particular choices won’t be right for every application, but there are more than enough options to (hopefully) fit your use case. And if not, you can always fall back to writing your own walk using the commit API.

Now we’re ready to run the walk, and print out some facts about each commit:

```c git_oid oid; while (git_revwalk_next(&oid, walk) == 0) { git_commit *c; char oidstr[10] = {0};

git_commit_lookup(&c, repo, &oid);
git_oid_tostr(oidstr, 9, &oid);
printf("%s\n%s\n\n", oidstr,
       git_commit_message(c));

git_commit_free(c);   } ```

[Implementing --graph is left as an exercise for the reader.]

That wasn’t so bad, was it? Traveling through time was never so easy. All that’s left is to clean up the mess we’ve made.

c git_repository_free(repo);

What now?

I dunno. What are you trying to do? You could always check out my other libgit2 posts for some ideas. Or look for help everywhere else.